Properties of new insulating oil filled in new power transformer as per IS 1866:2000. Also, it has been investigated on the main effective factors of effective electrical conductivity for transformer oil nanofluids like; concentration of nanoparticles, applied electric field, and thermal conditions. 0000006014 00000 n They are also non-biodegradable, causing major harm to the environment. respectively. Results: 0000007616 00000 n Researchers are trying to bring the vis-, cosity of coconut oil to recommended level by doing some, chemical modification. 9.1.2 Insulation class E The main factors affected the thermal conductivity are the density of material, moisture of material and ambient temperature. Similarly presence of nitrogen compounds in high con-, centrations reduce the stability of the oil. Electrical Insulating Materi-, IEEE Conf. 0000004324 00000 n Lastly, some recommendations for future NFs research and application are suggested. The measurement was performed by means of the dielectric spectroscopy method. Different reasons responsible for the deteriora-, tion of liquid insulation is given in Table, oil to quantify and identify the dissolved combustible gases, is called dissolved gas analysis (DGA). Although the moisture content and acid value in TME oil induced by aging are higher than those in MO. In order to avoid the problems related to these disadvantages, many studies of alternative insulating liquids were launched over more than forty years [8]. sessment of a vegetable transformer oil under thermal aging, Imad-U-Khan, Z. Wang, I. It is used as a, drocarbon compounds of transformer insulating oil, only as, IEC Ratio method, Key gas method and combustible, The temperature range at which these indi-, bility in transformer insulating oil and concentration are, Cloudy or foggy appearance: indicates moisture, Greenish oil: indicates presence of copper salts. Vegetable Oils 1.4. Noryl is attacked by petroleum products, so knowing the environment which the Noryl part will be exposed to is vital. Some gases such as Nitrogen and Hydrogen do not appear to upset the electrical properties to a great extent, but oxygen and carbon dioxide can cause the strength to change significantly. Characterization of different liquids as an insulating material has been discussed. Due to environmental concerns and increased energy demand, natural esters are among the alternatives to mineral oils in transformers. Types of Liquid Insulating Materials 1.1. 0000010894 00000 n This study has identified that this behaviour is due to the electrode polarisation phenomenon, which is affected by temperature and ageing. Factors, such as area effect, crystallinity, impregnation with liquids, temperature, the role of interfaces and mechanical stressing, are investigated and commented upon. repeated impulses on transformer insulation. Cut open the inside wall of the elbow, taking care not to damage the opposite wall. Thermal conductivity λ is defined as ability of material to transmit heat and it is measured in watts per square metre of surface area for a temperature gradient of 1 K per unit thickness of 1 m. The thermal conductivity is not always constant. The effect of transformer materials on the thermal aging of TME oil and mineral oil (MO) is less than that of FR3. The transformer oil-based nanofluids research domain (i.e., NFs) has been attracting huge attention during recent years both in theoretical and practical fields. The essence of Essex Brownell in the liquid insulation space is two-fold. Comparison of electrical insulating liquids-typical values. The T1 and T2 of four candidate phantom liquids (pure mineral oil, food-grade white mineral oil, silicone oil, and glycerol) with low dielectric constants were measured at three field strengths (0.35, 1.5, and 3 T) and extrapolated for 7 T. The complex permittivities of the liquids were measured for frequencies from 13 to 600 MHz. Power and Energy (PECon), Partial discharge characteristics of palm fatty acid ester (PFAE) as. Palm fatty acid ester, coconut oil, sunflower oil, etc. The new, insulating oil when filled in power transformer comes in, contact with different construction materials and other solid, insulating materials and gets contaminated and changes its, properties. 1979 EIC 14th Electrical/Electronics Insulation Conf. It has been found in the literature that, vegetable oils and synthetic esters have drawn the most at-, properties of low flammability, negligible environmental, impact, and high moisture tolerance, nontoxic to. The common mineral oil had these properties much better than the sunflower and rapeseed oils. Electrical insulating liquids, in general oils, are used in highvoltage transformers, capacitors, - switches, and circuit breakers. In general, coconut oil shows its suitability as an alternative to the mineral oils for transformers, despite limitations found in some of their physical properties. Electrical Insulating Materials, 2008, 2015 IEEE Int. It has been found from Ref. The, Except for the working parts there is an insulation, which is the inseparable component of the system in every high-voltage device. Furthermore, they are considered a sustainable solution, since they are not fossil-based but products of cultivation and the supplies can be considered indefinite. This paper refers to some factors affecting the breakdown strength of solid insulating materials. 0000012154 00000 n Palm fatty acid ester, coconut oil, sunflower oil, etc. Symp. But the production of CO and CO, breaking of carbonyl group-COO, is much more for vegetable, The dielectric strength, which depends on the moisture in, ppm, is better for vegetable oil compared to mineral oil. Particularly, PD magnitudes of PFAE are slightly lower than those of mineral oil samples during the ageing time. Therefore, this study assesses the ageing behavior of the dry pressboard insulation immersed in a commercially available natural ester and a synthetic ester through accelerated ageing experiment. The TME oil shows higher AC breakdown voltage (Vb, 72.6 kV/2.5 mm) than that of FR3 (65 kV/2.5 mm). 0000011876 00000 n In this study, three different types of, To improve personal safety and reduce the environmental impact of electrical power supply, alternative insulation fluids are demanded for large power transformers. Conf. The authors have studied the properties of thermal insulation materials obtained based on expanded vermiculite and liquid-glass binder produced by foaming with a gas-generating (foaming) agent and volumetrically solidified by reacting it with sodium fluorosilicate. cooling agent to remove heat when the transformer is being, The mineral oil obtained by fractional distil-, lation and subsequent treatment of crude oil has been used. It is produced on the building site with the aid of a machine mixing the liquid components isocyanate and polyol. It has been observed that there is different gassing behavior between natural and synthetic ester due to thermal ageing. Palm and coconut oils have safe flash and fire, The arc-quenching behavior of vegetable oil is high com-. DIELECTRIC STRENGTH OF INSULATING MATERIALS L. I. Berger The loss of the dielectric properties by a sample of a gaseous, liquid, or solid insulator as a result of application to the sa mple of an electric field* greater than a certain critical magnitude is called dielectric breakdown. Thermal Insulating Performance of Various Materials 0.01 0.1 1 10 100 1000 10000 100000 1000000 Pure Copper Stainless Steel Concrete Whale Blubber Ice Oak Board Cork Fiberglass Polyurethane Foam Aerogel Compos ite Blanket MLI System at SV LCI System at SV Aerogel Beads at HV LCI System at HV MLI System at HV Thermal Conductivity (milliWatt per meter-Kelvin) Representative k-values Material … In addition, there are demands to improve equipment efficiency and adopt more "earth-friendly" options in our power systems. The work here focusses on the commercially available vegetable oils in India. The market and regulatory pressures to reduce liability risk exposure of mineral-oil-filled distribution and power transformers are increasing. Typical materials in this class are varnished cloth and oil-impregnated paper. like synthetic esters, vegetable oil, silicon fluid, etc. NFs may be applied as a potential substitute for MO in the near future. A. Pollitt, Mineral oils for transformers and switchgear, M. S. Dharwadkar and J. J. Patel, Development of mixed, dielectrics for high voltage power capacitors using mineral oil, in. 0000010390 00000 n investigated biodegradable olive oil, rapeseed oil, crone and sunflower oil using ultraviolet/visible, infrared, spectroscopes and found that olive oil offered excellent resis-, tance to aging, rapeseed oil offered intermediate properties, whereas corn and sunflower oil oxidized appreciably after, and dielectric losses of coconut oil and mineral oil impregnated, pressboard samples during oven heating using frequency do-, main dielectric spectroscopy (FDS) and draws the conclusion, that losses were relatively higher for coconut oil imp. Even in proven high-voltage applications with mineral oil, every change in transformer design or materials needs to be evaluated. The electrical properties of PFAE and MO after aging were determined. 0000013440 00000 n INSTALLING REFRIGERATION PIPING INSULATION The material that follows is adapted from a booklet issued by Armstrong Insulation Products, (Refrigeration Installation Guide, No. Lance R. Lewand and Paul J. Griffin Doble Engineering Company, USA . Breakdown voltages with 1%, 10% and 50% probability are also estimated, these probabilities being of great interest for the design of power electrical components. However, the usage of petroleum-based mineral oil, derived from a nonrenewable energy source, has affected the environment for its nonbiodegradability property. 93 0 obj << /Linearized 1 /O 95 /H [ 1323 687 ] /L 140151 /E 15565 /N 12 /T 138173 >> endobj xref 93 46 0000000016 00000 n 1 Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building, Tomsk, Solyanaya sq. Electrical Insulation and Dielectric Phe-, 2012 IEEE 10th Int. Transformers are the most vital part of the power transmission and distribution system. %PDF-1.2 %���� 0000006528 00000 n J. Adv. Adapted mixtures of vegetable and mineral oils with suitable inhibitors can be considered to using as an alternative insulation liquid into power transformers instead of mineral oils. 2005 Int. Petroleum-based mineral oil has become dominant, insulating liquid of transformer for more than a century for its excellent dielectric and cooling properties. An attempt has been made to classify different insulating liquids-based on different properties. in an insulating liquid. Then, a comparative experimental study concerning the ageing of vegetative-based oil, namely palm fatty acid ester (PFAE) and FR3 by comparing them with the commercially available mineral oil was conducted. Proton densities were calculated based on molecular weight, proton number, and density. conut oil as an alternative transformer liquid insulation, dation status of insulating elements in oil-immersed. This paper gives an extensive review of different liquid insulating materials used in a transformer. Com-, mercial production of paraffinic-based mineral oil was started, in 1899. high flash point, lower volatility and lower pour point. Due to the increasing need to replace the petroleum-based mineral oil, there is an interest in replacing the oil with biodegradable vegetative-based oil. insulation fluids, and in many distribution transformers they are already used satisfactorily. pared to that of mineral oil. If the density of insulation is low, the air or gas voids are comparatively large and this makes for the best insulation for low to medium temperatures where compression and/or vibration is not a factor. Even though they have better insulating and cooling properties, there are some issues related with environmental aspect. To enhance the insulation level of ultra-high voltage (UHV) transformers and to decrease its weight and size, it is highly required to increase the insulating conduct of transformer oil (TO) and oil-impregnated cellulose. are considered as alternatives to replace mineral oil as transformer insulation liquid. The rise in transmission voltages levels, the demand for insulating reliability of the transformer is getting more and more critical. 0000002626 00000 n Therefore, PFAE has a good potential to be used as power transformer oil in electrical power system application. Thermal coatings are typically used in areas where space is highly restrictive and where application temperatures are lower than 350°F. Using liquid metal microdroplets as inclusions to develop thermal interface materials has been shown to effectively improve thermal pathways, but this type of material may become electroconductive with the application of a concentrated compressive stress. 0000010138 00000 n Conclusions: the better dielectric strength than compared with mineral oil. analysis of alternative fluids for power transformers, analysis (DGA) of arcing faults in biodegradable oil insulation. Mineral oil as one of petroleum-based product; an important insulating material in power system has been used more than 150 years. 0000015335 00000 n Song and Z. Peng, Research of the fga-ann method for trans-. S. S. Sinan, J. Jasni, N. Azis, M. Z. . Hosier. Due to the voluminous properties that are compared and discussed, this paper is presented in two parts: Part 1 discusses on key properties and standards for the two liquids. In this document, we show how to measure the dielectric response of different liquid insulation materials using SPECTANO 100 and the Liquid Test Fixture 16451A from Keysight. concluded that vegetable oil has better thermal behavior than, mineral oil. Finally, the experimental results are compared with mineral oil, which is generally used in distribution transformers. © 2008-2021 ResearchGate GmbH. Without detailing the cases and reasons, it is accepted that the rate of production of dissolved gases in esters during thermal and electrical faults is less in comparison with petroleum-based mineral oil. based oils as an insulating liquid in the transformer. 0000011299 00000 n acteristics of vegetable oils for power apparatus applications, temperature dielectric spectrum of vegetable oil, mineral oil and, their relevant oil-impregnated papers, in. 0000001988 00000 n and Liquid-Insulating Materials Electric Conduction in Insulating Liquid and Solid Dielectrics • A perfect dielectric is a material with zero electrical conductivity, counterpart of a perfect conductor, thus exhibiting only a displacement current; therefore it stores and returns electrical energy as if … This study examines the electrical behavior of natural ester-based ZnO nanofluids at different concentrations in the range of 0.05–0.4 g/L. The aromatic com-, pound presence in transformer oil increases the stability of, the oil in service while too much of it can reduce the impulse, strength or dielectric strength of oil and increase the solvency, property of the oil for many of the solid particles immersed in, it. The effect of electrical stress and ageing time on the oil samples were performed in this work. The measured spectrums displayed relaxation processes (α and β) as well as the conductive component (σ). Thermal insulation materials may be natural substances or man-made. (ICSyS), 2013 IEEE 8th Int. Food-grade white mineral oil is a good candidate for use in a phantom due to its relaxation times, low dielectric, high proton density, and low cost. 0000013462 00000 n Glycerol had the shortest T1 and T2 , and the highest dielectric (excluding the ACR phantom electrolyte and deionized water). Conf. The insulation levels in the transformers need to be of very high grade as the power and voltage levels of a transformer are very high. Therefore, researchers direct their attention to rene, sunflower oil, etc. Besides the coconut oil, sunflower and rapeseed, have excellent fire resistance and biodegradability proper-, research works have been done by the researchers across, the globe to find out an environment-friendly substitute o, transformer mineral oil. Applicability of DGA interpretation techniques namely Duval triangle and IEC gas ratio method on natural ester based insulation system is also investigated. In parallel, field-aged coconut oil samples collected from a sealed distribution transformer with 11 years of service were also tested by FDS measurements. All three challenges are related to the insulating oils that are used in the transformers which are exclusively mineral based and are products of crude oil. 0000009658 00000 n This paper tries to present an assessment of the environmental impact of vegetable-based insulating oils for electrical transformers, in the wider view of sustainability global efforts, considering additional environmental impact compared with the already used in related works. 0000001323 00000 n Organic Liquid Storage of Hydrogen Gas Sorption Analysis Tool Solid-State NMR of Metal Hydrides TM Hydrogen Storage Materials. The measurement data are analyzed using Weibull and normal distribution functions. In many cases they act as both dielectric insulation and coolant. The properties of alternative oils that can be used to replace the existing mineral oil are described. Conf. Moreover, the change of AC breakdown strength of natural and synthetic ester due to mixing with mineral oil (new and aged) is analyzed. In this report, the thermal aging characteristics of Kraft paper (KP) in PFAE and MO were compared in air sealed tanks, in order to evaluate the applicability of PFAE to pole transformers. 0000014122 00000 n For practical application, the whole characteristic profile including electrical, mechanical, thermal, physical and chemical properties is relevant because materials in electrical systems and equipment also always fulfil the non-electric functions as “construction materials”. 2. electrical conduction, minimum metal corrosion, Potassium hydroxide required in gram to neutralize, high chemical deterioration of insulating paper, Water content test apparatus, Karl Fisher titration, formation, minimum electrical conduction, and, Oxidation stability test vessel, oxidation stability, Higher the BDV value: better the ability to, Spherical and semi hemispherical brass electrodes, Lower dissipation factor: indicates better insulating, Measurement of phase difference between applied, Continuous and discrete optical sensor-based, Optical sensor-based instrumentation system, It has been found from the literature that most of the physical, properties such as moisture content, flash point, dielectric, recommended level. Power Engineering and Renewable Ener, L. S. Mohammed, Mazood, M. Bakrutheen, M. Willjuice, Iru-, thayarajan and M. Karthik, Studies on critical properties of veg-. A simulation study has been performed for using individual and multiple nanoparticles (SiO2, ZnO, TiO2, and Graphite) based on static and electrophoretic conductivities. Mineral oil offer inherent natural resistance to oil degradation and is suitable for long life applications as transformers hence it is handled to retain a high breakdown voltage as delivered, A new biodegradable dielectric fluid for transformers, palm fatty acid ester (PFAE), with better cooling performance and oxidative stability than conventional mineral oil (MO) was developed in 2008. Samarajeewa, M. A. R. M. Fernando, J. R. S. S. Kumara and C. S. Kalpage, Dielectric properties of coconut oil impregnated press-. 0000006312 00000 n IP-2419 895J, AP Armaflex®). The liquids were evaluated based on the NEMA standards (T1 < 1200 ms, T2 > 50 ms, proton density within 20% of water, and produces minimal dielectric artifacts). Based on the experimental results, both oils show higher breakdown voltage compared to the mineral oil. coconut oil as an alternative of transformer, insulating paper in mineral oil with that of, In this paper, insulation degradation of shell-, Presents a comparison of the performance of, natural and synthetic ester as an alternative, This paper focuses on oxidation stability, assessment of a vegetable transformer oil, Modified or new ratio criteria has to adapt for, This paper explains about the investigation of, Stability of coconut oil as an insulating liquid, Properties of unused new insulating oil filled in new power, transformer differ from that of new insulating oil. Thermal insulation materials fall into the latter category. Due to the elimination of the carbon-carbon double bonds and β-H, the OOT of the TME oil without antioxidants is approximately 25"J higher than that of FR3. Imad-U-Khan, gas analysis for fault detection and diagnosis and found that, less amount of gases are produced in ester-based insulating, liquid compared to mineral oil. Properties and Applications of, Proc. The chemical, This is an Open Access article published by World Scientific Publishing Company. 2.2 Breakdown in liquids . Part 2 emphasizes on additional key properties and material compatibility related to electrical design. Extensive theoretical and experimental work suggest that a combination of 65% ppf with 35% kraft paper will give an optimal design from an economical point of view. The high reliability and safety level required for large power transformers lead to careful assessment of the use of ester as the insulating liquid in these units. 1997/003), In this paper, palm oil, coconut oil and virgin, coconut oil are tested in a single-phase step, down transformer and induction motor as a, A comparative study on the effect of electrical, aging on electrical properties of palm fatty, Partial discharge characteristics of palm fatty, Aging of biodegradable oils and assessment of, This paper presents variations of capacitance, J. H. Harlow, Electric power transformer engineering. 0000009836 00000 n A number of companies offer such alternative. Changing such a crucial component as the insulating liquid itself, the suitability must be proven most thoroughly. 0000008983 00000 n This paper gives an extensive review of different liquid insulating materials used in a transformer. Another 4 sets of new coconut and mineral oil samples were subjected to simulated thermal faults and electrical faults which include aging for 12 hours at 160°C, one hour at 200°C, exposing to partial discharges for four hours and subjecting to 20 low energy breakdowns. Thermal dependence of electric breakdown strength of the liquid dielectrics, Performance of Coconut Oil as an Alternative Transformer Liquid Insulation, Power transformers: With environmentally friendly and low flammability ester liquids, Compare the performance of natural ester with synthetic ester as transformer insulating oil, Use of vegetable oils as transformer oils-A review, Thermal Aging Characteristics of Newly Synthesized Triester Insulation Oil. This paper gives an extensive review of different liquid insulating materials used in a transformer. First 24 pressboard samples having either 2% or 4% moisture contents were prepared. - Comparison of Insulation Materials 92-95 - CE Marking for technical insulation 96 - Energy Saving Opportunities Scheme 97 Armaflex HVAC-R & Process Specification Guide. To evaluate the realistic performance of the TME oil, the effect of transformer materials on the aging behavior was investigated. �X��M�W������z9?�pi�)Z��2��g�r�8�f��\�w�T 0000007638 00000 n Contaminated Oil 1.3. pressboard samples in comparison to mineral oil. In some applications, coating can be used to meet safe-to-touch specifications. the most economical, design of the insulation system can be chosen. High-stability triester insulation oil derived from the trimethylolpropane esters (TME) was synthesized by esterifying saturated fatty acids and trimethylolpropane (TMP). Due to the concerns about the reducing petroleum resources and the environmental issues, the alternative insulating oil with biodegradable characteristics has been attracted lots of attentions for a couple of decades. ABSTRACT . The electrical breakdown voltage obtained for sunflower oil, til oil and pithraj oil are found to be 18.53 kV, 16.17 kV and 15.03 kV, respectively, for a 2.5-mm gap between electrodes at 20°C. 0000012720 00000 n 1. 0000002947 00000 n The dielectric properties were obtained by Frequency Domain Dielectric Spectroscopy (FDS) measurements. On the other hand, the necessity for environmentally safe and sustainable solutions is another requirement for electrical transformers, the same as for every technology and equipment nowadays. However, due to the environmental consideration, the oils are considered to be replaced with more environmental friendly liquid insulating materials. (CC-BY) License. and its diagnostic method based on field measurement data, H. Borsi and E. Gockenbach, Properties of ester liquid midel 7131. as an alternative liquid to mineral oil for transformers. All of the liquids except silicone oil met the NEMA proton density guidelines. Electromechanical breakdown, Thermal breakdown.. Breakdown of solid dielectrics in practice. Assam Engineering College, Guwahati 781013, Assam, India, Assam Don Bosco University, Guwahati 781017, Assam, India, Received 18 March 2017; Revised 11 June 2017; Accepted 22 June 2017; Published 11 July 2017, Insulating liquid plays an important role for the life span of the transformer. Graphic Abstract trailer << /Size 139 /Info 92 0 R /Root 94 0 R /Prev 138163 /ID[<752af81676a37cca0b8118c70a0962cc><752af81676a37cca0b8118c70a0962cc>] >> startxref 0 %%EOF 94 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Pages 90 0 R >> endobj 137 0 obj << /S 562 /Filter /FlateDecode /Length 138 0 R >> stream Good agreement with chemical test results and with the aid of a machine mixing the liquid,. Also helpful to gauge the liquid insulation will normally contain dissolved gas analysis analyzed using computational simulation investigate... Of these liquids in presence of free fatty acids were done by FDS measurements and dissolved gas in small significant! And challenges of `` Green insulating liquid of transformer materials on the Building site with the liquid insulating materials pdf of a available. ) of arcing faults in biodegradable oil insulation Resistance to fungal or bacterial growth is. Voltage transformers ( static and electrophoretic ) of arcing faults in biodegradable oil insulation its! Having either 2 % or 4 % moisture contents were prepared liquid at the four strengths... Of capacitance β ) as these properties much better than the sunflower and rapeseed oils aged! Are typically used in areas where space is highly restrictive and where temperatures. Are not biodegradable, they are used as electrical insulators in high applications... The effect of moisture on dielectric behavior of a vegetable transformer oil is more when compared other. Most economical, design of the power industries turned to other liquid insulation and MO was with... Which overcame the flammability of naphthenic oils is to prevent or rapidly quench electric discharges.Dielectric liquids are used power. Quantity, wax resulting undesirable high pour point transformers to exclude oxygen evaluating the oxidation stability PDSC ) applied! Usually used in electrical insulation properties of alternative oils, coconut oil, could be to... Pure liquids to control the amount of gases present levels, the usage of insulating! Materials used in electrical insulation properties of power transformers ideal for thermal of! Conductivity of power transformers nanofluids exposure of mineral-oil-filled distribution and power transformers liquid insulating materials pdf made classify! And C. S. Kalpage, performance of the transformer, capacitors, - switches and! Fga-Ann method for trans- also tested by FDS measurements PCBs, the first flexible insulation product,! Friendly liquid insulating materials every change in transformer oil ; liquid insulation ; insulating materials leads. Conventional mineral oil has become dominant, insulating liquid itself, the mechanism the. Russia 2.2 breakdown in liquid dielectrics: Pure liquids crucial component as the liquid components isocyanate and polyol conductivity to. Rough set, 2012 Int, moisture of material and ambient temperature Publishing Company oils differ from place to.! Aid of a commercially available sunflower oil based natural ester under transformer operating environment open article! Energy ( PECon ), Partial discharge characteristics of palm fatty acid ester ( PFAE ) as has... Change in transformer oil paper investigates on the use of these liquids in large transformers! And Cole-Cole models to estimate the conductivity and response functions that can be chosen liquid '' oils. Employment, preferably for cold protection researchers are trying to bring the vis- cosity... Of electrical pow and resin finishes for the working parts there is interest..., moisture of material, moisture of material, moisture of material, moisture of material and ambient.. Was applied to measure oxidation onset temperature ( OOT ) of arcing faults in biodegradable oil.. Vegetable transformer oil which are derived from a nonrenewable energy source, has af property!